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Frequently Asked Questions

Is phage therapy covered by my insurance?

It depends on your insurance company. Many insurance companies -- if the costs of treatment are lower than those via traditional medical services -- will reimburse most or all costs associated with treatment, including air fare and lodging. Patients may be able to submit claims to their insurance companies for non-phage related treatments and medical costs. The phage preparations, which are not approved in many countries, are only one element of your treatment -- which involves standard medical procedures that are normally covered by most insurance companies. Check with the "utilization review" organization (or equivalent) at your insurance company: ask what is covered if you are treated "off shore". Be sure to include in your inquiry the costs for travel and lodging.

Let the Phage Therapy Center the staff know that you intend to submit an insurance claim and they will prepare the appropriate documentation for you when your treatment is completed.

Do you guarantee a successful outcome to treatment?

No. While the clinic utilizes the state of the art for phage therapy, there remains a possibility that your infection will be resistant to phages and other medications utilized during therapy.

What are the success rates for phage therapy?

Source: Polish Academy of Sciences
Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy
Centre of Excellence since October 2002

Results of bacteriophage treatment (1307 cases)

1307 patients with suppurative bacterial infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria of different species were treated with specific bacteriophages (BP). BP therapy was highly effective; full recovery was noted in 1123 cases (85.9%). In 134 cases (10.9%) transient improvement was observed and only in 50 cases (3.8%) BP treatment was found to be ineffective. The results confirm the high effectiveness of BP therapy in combating bacterial infections which do not respond to treatment with all available antibiotics.



Number of cases

Clinical diagnosis


Subjected to phage therapy

Full recovery*

Marked improve-ment**

No effect

Septicemia Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas


93 (87.7%)


5 (4.7%)

Purulent otitis media Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas


28 (88.4%)


2 (6.06%)

Purulent meningitis Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas


10 (100%)


Varicose ulcers of lower extremities Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas


47 (61.03%)

21 (27.2%)

9 (11.6%)

Mucopurulent chronic bronchitis, laryngitis, rhinitis Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas


224 (82.6%)

46 (16.9%)

1 (0.3%)

Bronchopneu-monia, empyema Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas




10 (18%)

Pleuritis with fistula Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas





Suppurative peritonitis Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas




1 (0.15%)

Urinary tract infections Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas


59 (75.6%)


10 (12.8%)

Furunculosis Staphylococcus aureus


90 (100%)



Decubitus with infection Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas





Pyogenic arthritis and myositis Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas





Osteomyelitis of the long bones Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas





Suppurative osteitis after bone fractures Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas





Pyogenic infections of burns Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas





Pyogenic postoperative infection Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas





Chronic suppurative fistulas Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas


168 (93%)



Suppurative sinusitis Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas





Purulent mastitis Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli


41 (93.1%)





1123 (85.9%)

134 (10.2%)

50 (3.8%)

*Full recovery and complete elimination of bacteria
** Improvement, bacteria still detectable

Table 2. Sensitivity of bacterial strains within different species to specific bacteriophages

Set of phages

Number of bacterial samples



phage sensitive (%)



2311 (95%)
376 (89%)
380 (81%)
125 (60%)

Source: http://www.aite.wroclaw.pl/phages/phage4.html

Why is a bacterial sample necessary?

Bacteriophages are "host specific", meaning they are "programmed" to infect and destroy a specific species or sometimes even a particular strain of bacteria. So, for example, if the patient has a Staphylococcus infection, then a Staphylococcus phage must be used to treat it; if there is an E.coli infection, an E.coli phage is required for treatment. Phages will kill bacteria completely, but only if they are matched well. Using a laboratory process called the "phage sensitivty test", Phage Therapy Center determines if your infection is sensitive to (in other words, "can be treated with") the standard production phage preparations. If the sensitivity test shows that your infection is resistant to the phages, then it is necessary to locate, via a laboratory research process, matching phages. This matching process is called autophage (see description of autophage below).

What if I can't get a bacterial sample?

In some countries, getting a bacterial sample is extremely difficult or impossible, due to the regional health care laws and regulations. Do not let this prevent you from traveling to Georgia and becoming our patient. Your bacterial cultures can be taken upon your arrival at the clinic. If you come to our clinic without having first sent bacterial sample, you should be prepared to extend your stay at the clinic up to a week or more, depending on whether or not the bacteria causing your infection are sensitive to the standard production phage preparations. If the bacteria are resistant to these standard phage preparations, then a custom preparation will need to be developed. Refer to "What is an autophage", below, for more information.

What does the $200 (for the first sample) and $100 (for each additional sample) that accompanies my bacterial samples, questionnaire(s), and medical history cover?

  • A laboratory analysis to determine if the infection is sensitive to the standard production bacteriophage preparations produced by our suppliers.
  • An examination of your medical history by a qualified group of physicians and specialists. This examination will result in an assessment / diagnosis.
  • An estimate of treatment costs.

Unless otherwise indicated, patients must provide both a bacterial sample and a medical history before an assessment and cost estimate can be provided. The more detail provided by the patient during the initial registration and in subsequent correspondence, the more quickly and effectively the medical staff can determine if phage therapy is or is not a good option for you.

How do I pay for treatment?

Patients must either wire a designated deposit prior to arriving at the clinic for treatment, or bring with them the designated amount in US dollars. At the end of your treatment at the Phage Therapy Center clinic, you will be invoiced for additional costs, or receive a refund for any unused deposited funds.

Who pays for travel and lodging?

Patients are responsible for their own travel and lodging; Phage Therapy Center staff will assist in making travel and lodging arrangements if requested.

Do I need a visa to enter Georgia?

Citizens of the European Union, the United States, Japan, Canada, Israel, Switzerland and Norway may enter Georgia for up to 90 days without a visa. If you are not a citizen of one of the above-mentioned nations, please see the consular info page of Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (http://www.mfa.gov.ge/index.php?sec_id=66&lang_id=ENG) to determine if you require a visa.

How prevalent are Staphylococcus aureus infections, and what is the average cost of conventional antibiotic treatment in the United States?

In the United States, an estimated 300,000 patients contract nosocomial (hospital acquired) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections each year resulting in approximately 12,000 deaths. S. aureus also requires significant treatment and hospitalization cost versus other infections, exceeding $48,000 per patient on average.

Until recently, MRSA was seen almost exclusively in hospitalized patients. It is now being seen in the community, especially in pockets such as groups of athletes, children in childcare settings, and crowding situations such as prisons and jails.

What is an autophage?

Bacteriophages are very specific to which species, and in many cases which strain, of bacteria that they will infect and destroy. The purpose of the initial laboratory test of a patient's bacterial sample is to determine if the bacteria are sensitive to the standard production phage preparations that are produced by our suppliers. If the bacteria are resistant to the phage preparations, then the production preparation will not be effective for treating the infection. The laboratory will, at the request of the patient, conduct a series of additional research, examining and testing with other phages in their collection, to determine if it is possible to develop a custom phage preparation for the patient's infection. Usually it is possible to develop an autophage, but there is no guarantee. This process is at additional cost, due to the labor involved.

What infections / conditions are not treatable with phage therapy?

There are a number of pathogens for which there are currently no therapeutic phage preparations available; the list includes:

  • Mycobacterium (all species, including tuberculosis)
  • Clostridium difficile
  • Citrobacter
  • Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease)

In many cases, however, Phage Therapy Center uses other similarly unique, safe and approved medical alternatives to treat many of the above species. If you have questions about what pathogens or medical conditions can be treated by Phage Therapy Center, please send an inquiry to mailbox@phagetherapycenter.com.